Oftentimes, we forget to acknowledge the rich history behind languages that we hear all around us. To add to that, there are plenty of languages that aren’t even in use anymore but once stood as a symbol of man’s need for communication. Human beings are social creatures and the languages that we speak not only help us connect to one another but also stand as proof of the various grand cultures we are a part of. Read on to find out the Top 10 Oldest Languages in the world.
Sumerian Language is considered to be the oldest language in the world. Dating back to 3500 BC, the Sumerian Language had a cuneiform writing system and originated in Mesopotamia, what has now become Iraq. The language was unheard of before archaeologists discovered tablets in the 19th century. The language was replaced by the Akkadian language in 2000 BC but continued to be used in some parts of Mesopotamia. There are no modern speakers of the Sumerian Language today.
Along with Sumerian, the Egyptian language also has an ancient root and dates back to 3300 BC. The hieroglyphics used in this language has certainly popularised it even now. As notified, the language is known to belong to the prominent Afro-Asiatic Language family, and also, it is known to have lasted for centuries. Even though the language itself dates back to the third millennium BC, the first complete sentence in this language has been found to be written in 2690 BC.
Next comes the Mycenaean Greek language which originated in 1600 BC. This language is known to belong to the majorly prominent Indo-European language family. However, this language has no literature or poetry written in it. The inscriptions which were found and deciphered were mostly lists and inventories. Nevertheless, even that has let us get valuable insight into the lives of the Greek right before the Greek Dark Ages.
Old Chinese or Archaic Chinese language is the predecessor of all modern Chinese languages in use. The oldest inscription found in this language dated back to the year 1250 BC and was made under the Shang Dynasty. A wide array of literature can be found written in this language which has immortalised Old Chinese forever. The vocabulary and grammar of the Old Chinese language are still very much known and widely studied.
The Aramaic language became popular among the Arameans in 900 BC and continued to be used in its original form for three thousand years. Over these years, the language was used by the people native to the Near East in every aspect of daily life, and hence, the language showed a great deal of development. In modern times, there are roughly 4,50,000 speakers of Neo-Aramaic today, a language derived from Aramaic.
Latin is not only one of the oldest languages in the world with its inception in 700 BC, but also a source of various other words in the English language that we use today. Latin originated in Rome and spread through Italy and parts of the Western Roman Empire and hence, became a dominant language and lasted for centuries. This language finds a vital role in modern-day theology, medicine, and law.
Tamil is a Dravidian language and spoken by millions of people in South India, Sri Lanka, and Singapore. The oldest known existence of this language dates back to 500 BC; however, the language would have existed before that as well. It is considered amongst the longest surviving classical languages. Also, it has recorded literature that spans more than 2000 years. Hence, a person who understands Tamil would certainly understand a Tamilian text from centuries ago.
This language originated in the 100 AD and was dominant in South Asia and South-East Asia. A lot of sacred Hindu texts were written in Sanskrit. This language was codified very systematically and consisted of standardised grammar. The language became synonymous with high-society and hence, went on to leave a lasting impression on South-East Asian linguistics in general. As of now, there aren’t that many active speakers of the language but, a revival of Sanskrit is being worked towards.
Dating back to 292 AD, this language was established in the present-day Northern Central-America. The Mayan language is one of the most comprehensively studied languages in America, and much of its systematics has been established by comparing it to its modern-day derivatives. The first known Mayan languages are in the form of small pictures called Glyphs, which developed into letters and words. Currently, the language is spoken by at least 6 million people.
The Arabic language is known to prominently emerge during the tenure of 328 AD. It notably belonged to the majorly renowned Afro-Asiatic language family. During the middle ages, Arabic had an influence on European culture and science. Thus, a lot of European languages have Arabic influences. Currently, Arabic is one of the six official languages in the United Nations and the fifth most spoken language in the world. The world of Arabic literature is intricate and deserves to be explored with the utmost passion.
After reading through this list of Top 10 Oldest Languages in the World, now you are better equipped with facts about the various languages that existed and still do. Learning about the history of languages, and their course over time opens up our minds to the world around us makes us more informed.
Read these amazing books for free online
A few years back, the majority of the people started blaming Kindle for killing the era of traditional books. As the trend continued, more and more people were majorly reliant on classic books to read. Well, surely you can’t get those feels and vibes in a kindle. Still, if we compare the digital ones with the traditional ones, e-books indeed have some benefits. These e-books are undoubtedly helpful in saving your shelves’ whole space that you can now use to keep other necessary stuff. Also, if you are traveling somewhere, you don’t have to carry multiple books along with you. You have to take a kindle and read amazing books for free online whenever and wherever you want to. It has millions of books in a single space.
If you are trying to save some bucks without compromising on your love for books, we have got your back. We have come up with a whole list of amazing books for free online that you can read out at no cost. Yes, you read it right! You don’t have to spend even a single penny on reading them. Have a look at our list and enjoy happy reading!
1. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
If you want to read out the finest rom-com, you should start reading Pride and Prejudice right away. This book focuses on showcasing the notable relationship between Fitzwilliam Darcy, who is a rich aristocratic landowner, and Elizabeth Bennet, who is a country gentleman’s daughter. Both of them have to overcome the notable titular sins associated with the pride and prejudice to marry one another.
2. Bleak House by Charles Dickens
This book is sort of a legal drama. Throughout the whole story, it has been showcased that the wheels of justice can turn, and it’s undoubtedly going to be quite painful. Also, it has shown how the various court cases shall prove to be responsible for the destruction of many people’s lives. If we delve into its notable specifics, the story also revolved around the working of the law in England during that time.
3. Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte
If you are a romance lover, then Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte is surely the best book for you. But, the story is more of a revenge story than the romance one. But, you are surely going to get stuck to it since it’s very innovative. The story of this book revolves around Heathcliff, who has been exhibited as a strange child adopted by a notable family. Later on, they make him their servant. Eventually, he runs away from his home the moment he gets jilted by the one he loves. He returns back in good condition and with a lot of wealth, but now he intends to destroy both the families who ruined his life.
4. Great Expectations by Charles Dickens
If you are someone who loves inspirational stories, then you can surely try out reading the Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. The story of this amazing book showcases the tales of Pip, who is an orphaned child. He notably climbs up and then comes down the social ladder right in Georgian England. In this book, you are going to come across a lot of wonderful things happening in the story. These include the great action scenes, memorable and highly impressive characters, and the most important family loyalty as well.
5. The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas
The Three Musketeers is considered to be one of the finest stories in the history of books. Whether we talk about humor, romance, or double-crosses- this book has got them all in it! If you are looking out for a light and fun adventure, count on The Three Musketeers. It is surely a good read for every kind of reader out there. There have been various sequels of this story, and so you can read out each one of them with no hassle!
6. Walden by Henry David Thoreau
The story of Walden is known to exhibit the story of Thoreau, who has spent the two crucial years of his life in a self-made cabin. The cabin is located on the Walden Pond. During those times, he wanted to become the self-reliant one, and thus, he took such a step. Walden has proved to be a thought-provoking read for everyone. It shows what it feels like and how it looks like when you become self-reliant. This book contains an array of amazing tales related to nature and independence as well.
7. Les Misérables by Victor Hugo
Les Misérables is a book that is all about maturity, changing, and growing into someone who has a strong decision-making ability for what’s wrong and right. You are surely never going to get a better read than this one! This book shows the gradual and positive change in Jean Valjean that happens from the starting till the end of this book. Apart from this, the book also consists of many interactions with the people who have various moralities and they have something or other to tell about the art of growing and becoming mature. With so many memorable characters in this book, it is surely going to make you stick with itself till the end.
8. Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse
The book Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse is notably the finest one till now. It is known to entail Siddhartha. He is a simple man intending to know and understand life’s work. He commences his journey by notably becoming an ascetic. Thereby, he gives up all kinds of worldly possessions. Throughout the whole story, he passes through a good number of stages. Ultimately, he reaches the most powerful conclusion of his life by the end of this book.
9. The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde
Are you a horror reader? If yes, then you should surely try out The Picture of Dorian Gray, written by Oscar Wilde. It is a horror story. Simultaneously, it also showcases the story about those people who hide the darker side of their lives. Obviously, you cannot expect the completion of Oscar Wilde’s stories without some humor in them. Thus, while reading the same, you can expect some humor. Overall, this is a dark story, and you are surely going to love it. You can read this awesome amazing books for free online.
10. Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe
You are surely going to fall in love with Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. This is because this story tells about the journey of a man who has survived the twenty-eight years on a notable island. He survived there while fighting with the mutineers and cannibals. Overall, this book is a perfect epitome of adventure and self-reliance. You are surely going to get inspired by this book!
Evergreen singers worthy of being remembered
If you are a music lover, then you obviously understand its importance. Good music has the ability to overcome your pain and let your heart and mind relax. Music has always been an inseparable element of our lives, and none of us can even imagine our life without music. It can quickly sink within our souls and hearts. We have been talking a lot about the best Bollywood movies, actors, and dialogues. But, how many of us actually talk about the singers? Yes, we talk about the songs but not their singers. Now is the time for us to learn about the evergreen singers of Bollywood. They have given the best hits with their melodious voices. Let us know more about them in our article about evergreen singers. Read on further…
1. Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar, commonly referred to as Lata Didi, one of the evergreen singers we have has stolen the hearts of many with her melodious voice. She stepped into the Bollywood industry when she was just 13 years old, intending to work as an actress or a singer. She did this when she lost her father, who had cancer. Till now, Lata Mangeshkar has sung over 50,000 songs, and that too not only in Hindi but 36 other languages. Also, she has notably received the highest civilian award, i.e., Bharat Ratna.
It was on 27th January 1963 when she sang “Ae Mere Watan ke Logon ” that brought tears to Jawaharlal Nehru. Also regarded as the “Nightingale of Bollywood,” the songs sung by Lata Mangeshkar have always been the finest treat to our eyes. Some of the best songs sung by her include Aaj Phir Jeene ki Tamanna, Kora Kagaz Tha Yeh Man Mera, Ajib Dastan Hai Ye, Tere Bina Zindagi Se, and thousands of others.
2. Kishore Kumar
The heart-stealing man of Bollywood, Kishore Kumar, was one of the iconic and evergreen singers back then. He was an all-rounder, and apart from being a singer, he has acted in many films as well. This evergreen male singer has left a forever place in everyone’s heart with his amazing voice. His voice suited every actor irrespective of his age.
Kishore Kumar had the inevitable charm that would make everyone smile. Whether we talk about his unique yodeling, madcap comedy, and energetic performances, he used to leave everyone speechless. The distinct charm of his personality was worth watching. Some of his best songs include ek ladki bheegi bhaagi si, mere sapno ki rani, pal pal dil ke paas, Zindagi ke safar mein, hume tumse pyaar kitna etc.
3. Mohammad Rafi
Whether we talk about the melodious ghazal, spiritual bhajan, or any whacky song- Mohammad Rafi had sung all of them. Mohammad Rafi had the notable and very impressive ability to adapt his voice effectively with the kind of screenplay and the characters in the movie. Do you still remember the comedy and very intriguing “Sar Jo Tera Chakraye” starring Johnny Walker? Rafi gave such an actual look to the song that it looked like the actor himself is singing that song!
Being considered as the finest playback evergreen singers during the earlier time, he has never failed to impress everyone with his voice. He’s always smiling face has stuck to the hearts of his fans in no time! During his entire career, he is known to sing more than 26,000 songs. He was felicitated with the Padma Sri Award in 1965 by the Indian Government. Some of his very famous songs include Abhi na jao chhod kar, bahaaron Phool barsao, kya hua tera wada, kya hua tera wada, chaudhvin ka chand, etc.
4. Asha Bhosle
The younger sibling of Lata Mangeshkar and the Pop Queen of India, Asha Bhosle has a charm of her own. She has been responsible for giving a whole new look to the Bollywood industry with her sensuous and pop songs! She has a unique voice that is certainly incomparable with any other singer in the industry currently. Whether the industry wanted her to sing film music, ghazals, bhajans, or pop songs, she was always successful in making it a hit.
She sang her first song when she was ten years old, and that was in a Marathi film, namely Majha Bal. Till now, Asha has not only sung in the Hindi language but Russian and Malay as well. It is quite notable that she has sung with the Alaap that is a Bhangra group. Some of her finest songs include Piya tu ab to aaja, aao huzur tumko, mere sona re, dum maro dum, do lafzon ki hai, and thousands of other songs.
5. Mukesh Kumar
Mukesh Kumar has always been considered as the legendary singer of all times. He is also known as the “voice of Raj Kapoor.” It is because of his superhit pairing with Raj Kapoor. His voice suited him a lot, and thus, the majority of Raj Kapoor’s movies were sung by him only. He had a golden voice, and there was doubt on the same if we see his millions of fans still blessing their ears by listening to his melodious voice.
The melancholy prevalent in his voice would make your eyes watery in no time. It’s because his voice was meant to be felt and not only heard. Some of his best songs are maine tere liye hi saat rang ke sapne, kisi ki muskurahaton, awara hoon, suhana safar aur ye mausam haseen etc.
6. Manna Dey
Manna Dey set his foot in the Bollywood industry when classical music commenced ruling this amazing industry. Classical music started gaining a huge fan base, and the moment Dey entered, it got a boom! It’s because this person had a golden voice, and also, he was notably well-versed in the noteworthy Hindustani classical music. Not only the classical music, as he is also quite proficient in other genres and styles as well.
We would never be able to forget his amazing cult performance in none other than the movie Padosan for the song “Ek Chatur Naar.” In the movie Padosan, he was the voice behind Mehmood. He has always been regarded as the finest and exemplary singer in Bollywood. He is known for his amazing list of songs, and some of them are ae meri Zohra zabeen, Laga chunri me daag, Aaja sanam madhur Chandni mein hum, Zindagi kaisi hai paheli hai, etc.
7. Jagjit Singh
Your list for the ghazal songs would stay incomplete without the discussion of Jagjit Singh in it. This legendary singer has got a huge fan base for his heart-touching voice. He is the best singer and has also played the role of being a music director, composer, and musician for various songs. The industry gave him the name of “Ghazal King.” This man had struggled a lot in his life when he lost his younger son in a saddening car crash.
He has sung songs for a plethora of movies, and these include Veer-Zaara, Aapko Pehle Bhi Kahin Dekha, Tarkeeb, Dushman, Premgeet, Sarfarosh, Dushman, Tarkeeb, etc. Some of his songs include Jhuki Jhuki Si Nazar, Tumko Dekha to ye khayal aya, honthon se choo lo tum, etc.
8. Usha Uthup
Born in a Tamil family, Usha Uthup studied in the St. Agnes High School located in Byculla. When she was studying, she was thrown out of her notable music classes because her voice didn’t fit the songs sung there. Well, her voice was unique, and the industry-respected the same. In 1969, Usha Uthup used to sing in Nine Gems, a small nightclub located on Mount Road.
After some time, she gradually started singing at the Oberoi hotels, and luckily, there was a film crew present there. They noticed her talent and offered her a song. That’s when she sang for Bombay Talkies by Ivory-Merchant. After that, she started getting loads of other offers, and this way, her career started at its peak. Some of her best songs include Dum Maro Dum, Hare Rama Hare Krishna, and many others.
9. Pankaj Udhas
A legendary man with a highly ethereal voice and the ability to reach our souls, Pankaj Udhas has always proved to be a heartthrob. He started off with his journey as a singer when his age was just 11 years. But, till then, he didn’t receive much success since he was a stage performer back then. His success started taking a rise when he got a movie to sing for. Its name was “Naam.”
After singing for the “Naam” movie, he launched over 40 albums. Also, it’s quite praiseworthy that he has sung for a good number of Bollywood songs, and the most amazing out of them was “Mahiya Teri Kasam.” Some of his famous songs and compositions include Chitthi Aayi Hai, Chandi Jaisa Rang hai Tera, Na Kajare Ki Dhaar, Jeeye to Jeeye Kaise, Aur Aahista Kijiye Batein, and many others.
10. Geeta Dutt
The mellifluous voice of Geeta Dutt has always been successful in stealing everyone’s heart. She had always done her best to fuel the emotions, energy, and feel in every song that has been sung by her. In the starting, she was carried with a tag of being a sad and religious singer. But, after her singing performance in Baazi in 1951, this image gradually changed.
In Baazi, she transformed from the notable traditional songs to amazing and highly entertaining western music. It was from 1947 to 1949 when she was listed amongst the top 10 women evergreen singers in India. Some of her nostalgic songs include waqt ne kiya kya haseen sitam, tadbeer se bigdi hui taqdeer bana le, aaiye meherbaan, babuji dheere chalna etc.
Did you know that your sitting postures tell a lot about your personality?
A lot of us are notably spending the majority of the day sitting. Even our 9-5 jobs demand us to sit during these working hours! Sitting continually can pose some health risks for you. Thus, it is quite important for you to stand and walk for 15-20 minutes in between your work. You might have heard a lot about your personality’s judgment based on your sitting postures. Well, that’s true, that sitting postures tell a lot about your personality! The way you sit and cross your legs is going to tell a lot about your personality. Do you want to know more about the same? If yes, then you are surely reading the right article. Scroll down and learn about what your sitting postures tell a lot about your personality.
If you are someone who is habitual of sitting with your legs crossed, then it indicates that you are quite open and carefree as well. If your knees spread in the sideward direction while sitting in this pose, it means that you are open to accepting new ideas. Also, since this kind of posture needs flexibility, it showcases that you are emotionally flexible as well.
If you are sitting with a straight back, this means that you are pretty confident. Just in case this turns out to be a typical posture for you, it means that you are a pretty confident, strong, and trustworthy person as well. It also showcases that you are a person to whom all people turn when they need some help or comfort.
3. Leaning backward
Leaning backward is a causal sitting posture and defines a sensitive person. It means that the person is the one who takes things quite sensitively. You have the ability to analyze people and their emotions as well. You always make decisions after analyzing both sides of the story.
4. Leaning on your arms
If you have a habit of sitting in a reclined position, it means that you are an analytical human. This kind of posture allows you to lean back and then observe the notable situation. It means that you understand what all is happening in front of you, but you are not ready to participate in the same. It showcases you as a human who is considerate enough and also concerned about the feelings and emotions of other people.
5. Leaning forward
If you are leaning forward, this means that you are curious to know what’s happening around you. Also, you are someone who always loves to meet and greet new people. You are very social and know-how to make the first impression in front of others.
6. Sitting with legs together
Anyone who is sitting with his/her legs together has a perfectionist kind of personality. People might take you as a strict and cold human, but in your heart, you are a generous and kind person. You are pretty blunt when it comes to sorting out worthwhile matters.
7. Crossed ankles
You are someone who always loves to stay in command. You are always indulged in showcasing your leadership qualities to the world. You want attention, and also, you need to know everything and everyone as well. You have always loved a regal and elegant position for yourself. You might come up as a jealous one in your relationship.
8. Crossed arms
The crossed arms position is considered to be a posture that notifies lack of receptivity. This is only notified and doesn’t mean that this is mandatorily the case. You have a strong character, and on most occasions, you like to stay serious. Making you smile is quite a difficult task, but you would smile with the ones you like! It would take much time for you to open up with other people.
9. Sitting stiffly with armrests
The ones sitting stiffly with clutching armrests exhibit your awareness of your surroundings. Also, it notifies that you are quite sensitive. Armrests are also known as the epitome of security and comfort. You are a grounded human being and stable as well.
10. Hands between legs
You are a human being who is quite sensitive, and also, you understand others’ feelings. You are always ready to support others whenever they need you. You are quite humble as well as unassuming. You love to sort out others’ issues and have a good and gentle nature.
11. Hands kept on your knees
You are a bold person and confident as well, and you would never feel shy from showcasing the same to others. You hail with a clear focus and are never absent-minded. You are completely aware of how to tackle sticky situations, and you are the best problem solver that one could ever get.
12. Hands resting on your lap
Those who notably keep their hands on their laps are considered to be thoughtful as well as shy. It shall also be an exhibition of your calm and collected personality. You are highly compassionate, gentle as well as an incredible human being.
13. Bouncing and crossed legs
If you are someone who has a habit of sitting with crossed legs and also keeps on shaking them, this means that you are undoubtedly a timely person. You always keep your promises, and nothing can stop you from staying calm, even in the most chaotic moments. You give utmost importance to details, and thus, you have the ability to read other people easily. You are always available for your friends.
14. Clasped hands on your lap
Just in case you are habitual of tightly clasping your legs in your lap, this means that you are an emotional kind of person with high passion. People have always been attracted to you because of your passion for life. You are lovely and feel good to make others laugh.
15. Folded hands on your lap
Those who sit with their folded hands on their laps are considered to be peaceful, kind, and calm personalities. This sitting postures tell a lot about your personality that you are not much social, but you are undoubtedly a loyal friend, and also, you are a pro in talking wonderfully. With your soft-spoken soul, you are highly respected and listened to in society.